Tag Archives: Researchers

US Army Researchers test insect-inspired robots

Army researchers are finding they have much to learn from bees hovering near a picnic spread at a park.

Dr. Joseph Conroy, an electronics engineer at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, known as ARL, part of the Research, Development and Engineering Command, works with robotic systems that can navigate by leveraging visual sensing inspired by insect neurophysiology.

A recently developed prototype that is capable of wide-field vision and high-update rate, hallmarks of insect vision, is something researchers hope to test at the manned and unmanned teaming, or MUM-T, exercise at the Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning, Georgia. This project will give us a chance to implement methods of perception such as 3-D mapping and motion estimation on a robotics platform, Conroy said.

The Maneuver Center of Excellence exercise will test whether ARL’s robotics platform is on track with the Army’s vision to team a robot with a Soldier. The tests will help to inform ARL researchers on how Soldiers might utilize information that can be provided by these platforms while attempting to clear a building from a safe distance in an urban environment, Conroy said.

The military’s goal of teaming autonomous systems with Soldiers requires collaboration among a variety of researchers from within ARL and outside, including Carnegie Mellon University researchers, who have been the primary collaborators for this project.

Carnegie Mellon is part of the Micro-Autonomous Systems Technology Collaborative Technology Alliance, or MAST CTA, of ARL’s robotics enterprise, which explores ways to enhance Soldiers’ situational awareness on the battlefield through basic research on micro-scale robotic systems.

The MAST CTA is led by BAE Systems, with principal members — the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, University of Maryland, University of Michigan and University of Pennsylvania, and 13 other university consortium members.

“The upcoming tests are a small example of a much larger effort,” said Brett Piekarski, Collaborative Alliance manager. “The university researchers across the consortium work with the Army researchers to come up with systems that can provide Soldier/robot teaming, and be transitioned to industry.”

The prototype is designed to help Soldiers have tactical awareness at the squad and personal level in urban and complex environments.

“If our prototype operates in the way it was designed to during these tests, it would be a technical win,” Conroy said. “But I would say the real goal of this exercise is to put the technology in the hands of Soldiers, gather their feedback, and gain understanding about what will make autonomous systems more useful.”

The components of the quad rotor are a mix of commercial and custom-designed parts to develop the navigation, exploration and mapping necessary for military applications, said Brendan Byrne, who manages the platform from the perspective of Computational and Information Sciences.

“Carnegie Mellon has previously demonstrated many of the capabilities that we will require for this project in a controlled environment, however, we are testing 3-D mapping and localization in a large, unstructured environment,” Byrne said.

ARL has been working with the Carnegie Mellon team for about two years, but only for the last nine months for the MUM-T exercise, Byrne said.

Issues can be uncovered when ARL engineers probe weaknesses in experimental setups that have been previously used to demonstrate capabilities in controlled environments. Further collaboration with university researchers can address these issues and produce a far more robust system.

The university researchers addressed the issues and came back with a far more robust algorithm, he added. “Just yesterday we were flying it through the building, zipping up and down stairwells.”

ARL is interested in stretching the boundaries of what will be feasible for Army unmanned system doctrine. The lab’s novel technology will be the least mature platform represented at MUM-T.

“We take a crack at unsolved problems,” Byrne said. “The technology may not completely work, but it directs where our attention should be focused.”

Today, human/robot teaming requires a lot of hands on participation from the Soldier but this platform is designed to navigate through a 3-D maze and avoid obstacles without help, he said.

MUM-T will be the first time ARL has demonstrated the technology in a more operational environment.

“It is exciting,” Byrne said. “On one hand, the technology offers the most cutting edge possibilities. On the other hand, the lack of maturity makes it the most prone to failure.”

Over the past few decades there has been much interest in this class of flying robotic platforms known as micro-air vehicles. The palm-sized vehicles operate relatively low to the ground, and are capable of navigating indoors or outdoors with stealth, low cost and low operator workload.

Engineers begin looking to insects because of the robust navigation in uncertain environments. In particular, Conroy became interested in the insect capability of detecting and tracking small targets and their capability for perceiving structure of the environment without stereo vision.

Conroy and his colleague J. Sean Humbert from the University of Maryland detailed their findings in “Structure from Motion in Computationally Constrained Systems.”

He said one of the things he is eager to test at MUM-T is the robotic mimicking of active vision in insects, which is their intentional use of motion to perceive structure.

The Research, Development and Engineering Command also has near-term focused organizations like the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center, Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center and Natick Soldier Systems Center, which will demonstrate state-of-the-art equipment at MUM-T the Army is developing.

The Maneuver Center of Excellence conducts research, development and experimentation to ensure the future maneuver force is prepared and equipped to fight and win in a complex future environment.

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Army turns to researchers for future lethality

The Army of the future may have fewer Soldiers but more lethality thanks to research in precision, scalable effects and improved range.

“Our scientists and engineers are, and have been, redefining the art of the possible to make this enabling technology a reality,” said Dale A. Ormond, director of the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command. “Our strategy is to build from the Soldier out, equipping our squads for tactical overmatch in all situations.”

In the September/October 2014 issue of Army Technology Magazine, the Army showcases research and development efforts to maintain overmatch.

“The Army has global responsibilities that require large technological advantages to prevail decisively in combat — ‘technological overmatch,’” Army Chief of Staff Gen. Ray Odierno wrote for the Army’s official blog. “Just as Airmen and Sailors seek supremacy in the air and on the seas, Soldiers must dominate their enemies on land. Modernizing, especially as end strength is reduced, is the key to ensuring that the Army’s dominance continues.”

Experts predict an individual Soldier of the future, armed with a 40mm grenade, may have the same lethal effects as current 155mm artillery.

“Lethality is more than just offensive lethality,” said Keith Jadus, acting director of the lethality portfolio for the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology. “It is the ability to provide protection. Lethality is what protects our Soldiers. It is the capability to reach farther than our adversary, and the ability for Soldiers to hold their ground, protect their ground, and move forward.

Army science and technology research examines affordability, extended range and precision to deliver new capabilities to Soldiers. The Army also seeks a scalable range of effects, both lethal and non-lethal.

“We envision the capability to decrease lethality to reduce collateral damage, or increase lethality tailored to the targets,” Jadus said.

Officials said energetics research also holds the promise of a tenfold increase in range and explosive punch through the use of new materials and chemical compositions.

“Imagine being a commander in the field with 10 levels of scalable lethality,” Ormond said. “Options increase exponentially. A strike need only be as lethal as necessary to accomplish the mission. As our sensors, targeting and associated technologies match our improvements in lethality, commanders will have fine-grained control to minimize if not completely avoid collateral damage.”

Sgt. Maj. of the Army Raymond F. Chandler III, the featured interview for the lethality issue, said the best weapon in the Army is still the U.S. Soldier.

“He or she is also the most precise weapon that the Army has, because of a combination of skills, experience and knowledge. A combination of the technology and the Soldier makes us superior on the battlefield, and that’s what makes the Army strong,” Chandler said.

A tanker by background, Chandler said he has seen the evolution of lethality firsthand during his career.

“We can do a lot with the power of the Soldier when it is accurately matched to technology that provides the outcome we want to achieve,” Chandler said. “In addition to lethality, we also need to increase our precision. We have made great strides in precision technologically, but the most precise weapon we have on the battlefield is the American Soldier. It’s the person that makes the final decision to shoot or not to shoot. Combining our Soldier awareness and the technology that is available, we will be even more accurate and more lethal on the battlefield.

Army Technology Magazine is available as an electronic download, or print publication. The magazine is an authorized, unofficial publication published under Army Regulation 360-1, for all members of the Department of Defense and the general public.

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Army researchers develop Cargo Pocket ISR

Researchers at the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center are developing a pocket-sized aerial surveillance device for Soldiers and small units operating in challenging ground environments.

The Cargo Pocket Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance program, or CP-ISR, seeks to develop a mobile Soldier sensor to increase the situational awareness of dismounted Soldiers by providing real-time video surveillance of threat areas within their immediate operational environment.

While larger systems have been used to provide over-the-hill ISR capabilities on the battlefield for almost a decade, none of those delivers it directly to the squad level, where Soldiers need the ability to see around the corner or into the next room during combat missions.

When Soldiers and small units need to assess the threat in a village, or in thick canopy terrain where traditional ISR assets cannot penetrate, the CP-ISR can be deployed to provide that capability.

“The Cargo Pocket ISR is a true example of an applied systems approach for developing new Soldier capabilities,” said Dr. Laurel Allender, acting NSRDEC technical director. “It provides an integrated capability for the Soldier and small unit for increased situational awareness and understanding with negligible impact on Soldier load and agility.”

NSRDEC engineers investigated existing commercial off-the-shelf technologies to identify a surrogate CP-ISR system.

Prox Dynamics’ PD-100 Black Hornet, a palm-sized miniature helicopter weighing only 16 grams, has the ability to fly up to 20 minutes while providing real-time video via a digital data link from one of the three embedded cameras and operates remotely with GPS navigation. Tiny, electric propellers and motors make the device virtually undetectable to subjects under surveillance.

The size, weight and image-gathering capabilities of the system are promising advancements that fulfill the burgeoning requirement for an organic, squad-level ISR capability, but more work still needs to be done.

Several efforts are underway to develop three different aspects of the technology to ensure it is ready for the Soldier and small unit.

The first of these efforts is focused on a redesign of the digital data link to achieve compatibility with U.S. Army standards.

The second focuses on developing and integrating advanced payloads for low-light imaging, allowing for indoor and night operations.

Lastly, researchers are continuing to develop and enhance guidance, navigation and control, or GNC, algorithms for the CP-ISR surrogate system. This will allow the airborne sensor to operate in confined and indoor spaces, such as when Soldiers advance from room to room as they are clearing buildings.

In November 2014, NSRDEC will collaborate with the Maneuver Center of Excellence, the Army Research Laboratory and other organizations to support the Army Capabilities Integration Center’s Manned Unmanned Teaming (Ground) Limited Objective Experiment, or LOE, by demonstrating the current capabilities of mobile Soldier sensors.

While the final system could be different from the surrogate system, NSRDEC is focused on proving the basic capability first.

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Army software researchers develop MRAP simulator

Army software engineers faced a challenge: Saving Soldiers’ lives. With the development of new simulation applications, Soldiers can now use advanced computers to train for worst-case scenarios.

U.S. Special Operations Command representatives visited the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center, known as AMRDEC, at Redstone Arsenal, in the fall of 2012, to meet with Army engineers.

The visitors saw a Humvee simulator in a Software Engineering Directorate, or SED, laboratory, where a vehicle traveled down roads simulated by large screens placed in front of the vehicle. Soldiers could ride in the vehicle and walk beside it while a simulated enemy engaged the Soldiers.

The AMRDEC Software Engineering Directorate is behind the popular America’s Army video game.

The experience was both realistic and helpful to the visitors, who asked for the possibility of creating a simulator for mine-resistant, ambush-protected vehicles, known as an MRAPs, recalled Director Dr. Bill Craig. MRAPS were added to the Army inventory during recent conflicts.

Eighteen months later, the Army software engineers delivered. The Army now has a new simulator called the Transportable, Reconfigurable, Integrated, Crew Trainer, or TRICT. It is fully operational to train Soldiers and save lives.

“The TRICT is a fully immersive crew trainer for the MRAP,” Craig said. “TRICT supports warfighter capabilities for training individually, or collectively as a crew, the skills required to operate features of the RG-33 and M-ATV variant MRAP vehicles.”

The TRICT features a realistic exterior and interior, including all vehicle controls for steering, gas, brakes, instrument panels, differentials and transmission control gauge for the MRAP. The main cradle is integrated with a pitch-and-roll assembly providing full-motion-based training, and egress training during rollovers. All doors and windows are outfitted with LCD displays that create an immersive, computer-generated training environment using the Unreal 3.0 gaming engine.

“While inside the simulator, Soldiers experience realistic motions, and sounds, coupled with state-of-the-art graphics to ensure an immersive training environment,” said Scott Johnston, lead systems engineer for the project. “In short, it is a very realistic trainer.”

The design also allows for training on the joint tactical wheeled vehicles such as the Humvee, Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, and RG31 MRAPs.

“We were able to develop this product in the amount of time that it would normally take to do the request for proposal,” Craig said. “The development of the TRICT Simulator is an excellent example of a product that is centered on the needs of Soldiers and was developed inexpensively and rapidly.”

There are three simulators currently, and officials hope for more in the future.

AMRDEC is part of the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, klnown as RDECOM, which has the mission to develop technology and engineering solutions for America’s Soldiers.

RDECOM is a major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. AMC is the Army’s premier provider of materiel readiness — technology, acquisition support, materiel development, logistics power projection, and sustainment — to the total force, across the spectrum of joint military operations. If a Soldier shoots it, drives it, flies it, wears it, eats it or communicates with it, AMC provides it.

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Researchers develop hands-free, eyes-free navigation for Soldiers

Researchers at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory continue to develop and evaluate methods for navigation and communication that are ‘hands-free, eyes-free and mind-free’ to aid Soldiers in the field.

Soldiers wear a lightweight belt around their torso, containing miniature haptic technology. The belt provides vibratory or tactile cues allowing a Soldier to navigate to map coordinates and receive communications while still carrying a weapon.

Research said initial feedback from Soldiers testing the device is positive. Soldiers say they liked being able “to concentrate on other things and not the screen.”

Soldiers are able to move and communicate while keeping visual map displays in their pockets and their eyes on the surroundings.

Vibratory signals are communicated through tactile actuators inside the device. Navigation signals correspond to vibrations or pulses that tell the Soldier which direction to go.

“Data are still being compiled, however, it is clear that Soldiers rarely looked at the visual display when the tactile belt was ‘on.’ Soldier feedback was very positive,” said Gina Hartnett, from HRED’s Fort Rucker, Ala., field element. “This assessment gave us a great example of how a device can free up the senses so effectively. Course times were faster on tactile assisted navigation legs. Soldiers reported being more situationally aware of their surrounding because they rarely, if ever, had to take their eyes off of their environment. Additionally, not having to interact with a visual display, allowed their hands to stay on their weapon.”

As long as the tactile sensation is felt at the front of the torso, the Soldier moves forward. If the sensation is at the side or back, the Soldier simply turns until the GPS-enabled signal is felt at the front.

At the same time, communications are also provided by tactile means that can be from other Soldiers or more intelligent ground robots — such as status updates or warnings regarding potential threat.

The vibration, or sensation the Soldier feels, determines what the Soldier is supposed to do or the task they are to perform and is based on the tactile language that is developed — such as with Morse code.

The patterns are developed to be distinct, unique and consistent with the information at hand, to allow the Soldier to quickly and easily interpret the cues. For example, hand signal information or specific messages such as “robot battery low” can be assigned to patterns, learned and recognized.

One may think of the vibration signals as similar to different ring types on your cellular phone. A person may know who is calling without actually looking at the screen to see the person’s name or number. It is the sound that provides the alert — not the actual sight of it.

Tactile actuators could be placed in any number of objects — such as a glove, belt, inside the helmet or vest.

Researchers from U.S. Army Research Laboratory, known as ARL, Human Research and Engineering Directorate’s Fort Benning, Ga., field element, are testing such tactile systems for navigation and/or communication during mission-relevant exercises to determine the effectiveness of these devices while wearing them and seeing how they perform during actual use. Soldiers quickly learn the system, attaining proficiency with the signals within 10-15 minutes.

Soldiers recently participated in an assessment of the NavCom system at Fort Benning, to evaluate simultaneous presentations of navigation and robot communication/monitoring using tactile patterns of two types of advanced tactors during operationally relevant scenarios. Researchers asked Soldiers to complete several combat-related tasks during this exercise.

The scenarios involved night land navigation on equivalent courses of about 900 meters. While navigating from waypoint to waypoint, Soldiers also received communications from a hypothetical autonomous robot regarding either the robots status or a possible threat detected by the robot. Additionally, Soldiers negotiated exclusion zones and identified enemy targets along the course.

The system automatically collected data, such as time to each waypoint and accuracy to each waypoint. Observer-based data collection included accuracy of robot alerts, number of times Soldiers looked down at their screen, took their hand off of their weapon and correctly identified a target on the course. Subjective data were also collected after each mission in the form of a workload assessment and questionnaire followed by an after action review at the end of the night.

Harnett said that some specific comments from the Soldiers included:

“I was more aware of my surroundings.”
“I don’t land nav much, but this made it a no-brainer.”
“I loved the belt, it worked perfectly.”

“This stream of research is very dear to my heart,” said Dr. Linda Elliott, from HRED’s Fort Benning field element. “It’s not often a Soldier can pick up a piece of equipment, be trained in five to 10 minutes, and have a very positive experience. In a previous night study, Soldiers said they were blind (night, fog, rain, night vision devices fogging up, etc.) and the belt led them straight to point, allowing them to focus attention on their surroundings.”

Elliott said the system supports the three basic Soldier tasks — move, shoot and communicate — all while allowing individuals to move more quickly, accurately, find more targets in their environment and be more effective at covert communications.

“At the same time, we are trying to collect more basic data, to identify the factors that make a tactile signal ‘salient’ — easily felt, immediately recognized and distinguished from others. That has to do with the type of tactile signal strength (and other engineering factors), individual differences (such as fatigue), and environmental factors.”

Tactile systems for military performance have demonstrated their potential with regard to capability achievement and performance advantage, across a number of applications. Experiments and demonstrations have been conducted across a wide range of settings, from laboratory tasks to high-fidelity simulations and real-world environments.

Several ARL studies have been conducted within the context of Soldier land navigation to investigate effects of tactile cues in context. Many of these studies have been published as ARL technical reports.

Elliott said that subsequent experiments proved the value of tactile systems to support Soldier navigation and communication, but at the same time, systems must be improved and refined before they can be practical in combat situations.

“They must be made lightweight, comfortable, rugged, networked within a command and control system and they must be easy to use and easy to maintain,” Elliott said. “As tactile displays are increasingly used for communication of more complex and multiple concepts, it will become evident that tactile and multi-sensory systems in general must be designed for rapid and easy comprehension.”


The U.S. Army Research Laboratory is part of the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, or RDECOM, which has the mission to develop technology and engineering solutions for America’s Soldiers.

RDECOM is a major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. AMC is the Army’s premier provider of materiel readiness — technology, acquisition support, materiel development, logistics power projection, and sustainment — to the total force, across the spectrum of joint military operations. If a Soldier shoots it, drives it, flies it, wears it, eats it or communicates with it, AMC provides it.

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USAF researchers test Google Glass for combat, intelligence missions

A US Air Force research team is in the process of beta-testing Google Glass headsets for possible utilization in battlefield scenarios. The BATMAN evaluation group at the US Air Force’s 711th Human Performance Wing is a highly-distinguished military research and development faction.

According to VentureBeat, that unit is interested in Google Glass for its ability to “access information very quickly,” says Andres Calvo, a software developer and civilian contractor with the team.

The BATMAN (Battlefield Air Targeting Man-Aided [K]nowledge) team wants to test Google Glass for possible use by forward air controllers to help fighter and bomber aircraft locate targets, for search and rescue teams, and to aid combat controllers’ communication with aircraft and ground troops, among other uses.

The testing comes as the US military attempts to move from using laptops in combat and intelligence missions to more convenient, flexible smart phones, tablets, and wearable technology like Google Glass.

For the Air Force, positives of Google Glass include “its low power, its low footprint, it sits totally above the eyes, and doesn’t block images or hinder vision,” says 2nd Lt. Anthony Eastin, a behavioral scientist on the BATMAN team. The group comprises of both military and civilian behavioral and technology experts.

The group said the Air Force obtained two pairs of glasses like civilians have, through Google’s Glass Explorer program that requires applicants to pay US$1,500 if approved.

Eastin said the BATMAN team has no affiliation or relationship with Google at this time.

Google representatives confirmed to VentureBeat they do not have a stake in the project or a relationship with its researchers “nor does it have any plans to,” a source says. Though the tech behemoth would score a lucrative payday should the Air Force decide to escalate its use of Glass.

The Air Force research team said it is also developing proprietary software to enhance the Android OS that Glass uses.

“The goal is to build software for research purposes for future endeavors,” Eastin says.

VentureBeat reported in February that the US Navy is working on “smart goggles” with another company, Vuzix.

The New York City Police Department – a top-ten global security force – is currently experimenting with Google Glass for potential use in terror investigations and routine street policing purposes, according to VentureBeat.

BATMAN’s head engineer, Dr. Gregory Burnett, said the team was formed in 2001 to enhance a multitude of Air Force capabilities. Glass is ideal for the Air Force according to Burnett, but “the question is, during the chaos of war, how will the technology perform?”

According to the 711th Human Performance Wing’s website, the three elite-research units it comprises of are tasked with advancing “human performance in air, space, and cyberspace through research, education, and consultation.”

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Army researchers inspire commercial rifle fire control systems

Researchers at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory go about their business every day working on projects to help better serve the military and its members who protect our country. Sometimes the research inspires commercial companies to do additional research and expand on certain aspects to develop products of their own.

That is what happened with the Army Research Laboratory’s, or ARL’s, research called “Inertial Reticle Technology,” where researchers who were then in the Weapons and Materials Research Directorate developed a concept to apply advanced fire control technology to sniper weapons.

As a result of this concept, a modern fire control system for rifles was developed by a Texas-based company, which later partnered with another prominent gun manufacturer. Their partnership allowed for the development of a new shooting system, which they claim may just revolutionize how targets are acquired. It is called the precision-guided firearm.

According to an article in American Rifleman magazine, dated Dec. 17, 2013, a new integrated rifle and sighting system was introduced in January 2013, in which a video screen scope with an internal laser rangefinder to measure the distance to the target and, using the latest in digital technology, factors in temperature, barometric pressure, incline/decline, cant, air density, spin drift, target movement and effect drift.

Raymond Von Wahlde, aerospace engineer, Vehicle Technology Directorate, learned about this discovery through his former colleagues Lucian Sadowski and Dr. Stephen Small both from Joint Service Small Arms Program who managed a project in the 1990′s known as, “Project White Feather.”

Small named the project as a tribute to famed sniper Gunnery Sgt. Carlos N. Hathcock II, also known as “White Feather.” Von Wahlde found that the new rifle was very similar to the technology he had coauthored a white paper on with Dennis Metz from EAI Corporation in August 1999, titled “Sniper Weapon Fire Control Error Budget Analysis,” data from which was included on the company’s website.

Von Wahlde contacted the company to see if those who developed their precision-guided firearms were aware of the Special Operations Command-sponsored project known as “Project White Feather.”

Von Wahlde said in his message, “we called it the ‘Inertial Reticle.’ It was the brainchild of Dr. Mark Kregel. Might the precision guided firearm trace its ancestry back at least in part to ‘Project White Feather?’”

Von Wahlde went on to say, “Your videos look remarkably like ours did back in the day. I am impressed with your implementation. We utilized actual inertial sensors on the weapon to stabilize the desired aim point. I like your image processing method for doing so. Your solution to trigger pull is elegant. We replaced the trigger with a switch that armed the system. A solenoid actually pulled the trigger. That was one of the least liked features of our prototype by the users. Adjusting the trigger force is brilliant.”

Within a couple of days, Von Wahlde received a message back from the company.

“Thank you very much for your email. I appreciate your work — Project White Feather continues to be the best compilation and serious study of sniper performance data that I am aware of. We make everyone on the team read it. Thanks for your interest, would love to show you the system sometime,” said Bret Boyd, vice president of sales and marketing, TrackingPoint.

Von Wahlde, who was project engineer for much of the testing, said he gives a lot of credit to his former colleagues.

“The technology was the brain child of Dr. Mark Kregel (now retired) and along with Tom Haug (also retired) and Tim Brosseau from WMRD, they constructed the prototype systems for the IRT (Inertial Reticle Technology),” said Von Wahlde. “I am honored to be part of a team that served as an inspiration for these systems.”


U.S. Army Research Laboratory is part of the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command or RDECOM, which has the mission to develop technology and engineering solutions for America’s Soldiers.

RDECOM is a major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. AMC is the Army’s premier provider of materiel readiness–technology, acquisition support, materiel development, logistics power projection and sustainment–to the total force, across the spectrum of joint military operations. If a Soldier shoots it, drives it, flies it, wears it, eats it or communicates with it, AMC delivers it.

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